_{}after tax cash flows associated with capital projects. We are concerned with all relevant changes or differences to cash flows once we invest in

_{}project.

### Understanding "Relevancy"

One question that we must ask in capital budgeting is what is relevant. Here are some examples of what is relevant to project cash flows:1.

**Depreciation**: Capital assets are subject to depreciation and we need to account for depreciation twice in our calculations of cash flows. We deduct depreciation once to calculate

_{}taxes we pay on project revenues and we add back depreciation to arrive at cash flows because depreciation is a non-cash item.

2. Working Capital: Major investments may require increases to working capital. For example, new production facilities often require more inventories and higher salaries payable. Therefore, we need to consider

_{}net change in working capital associated with our project. Changes in net working capital will sometimes reverse themselves at

_{}

3.

**Overhead**: Many capital projects can result in increases to allocated overheads, such as computer support services. However,

_{}subjective nature of overhead allocations may not make any difference at all. Therefore, you need to assess

_{}impact of your capital project on overhead and determine if these costs are relevant.

4.

**Financing Costs**: If we plan on financing a capital project, this will involve additional cash flows to investors.

_{}best way to account for financing costs is to include them within our discount rate. This eliminates

_{}possibility of double-counting

We also need to ignore costs that are sunk; i.e. costs that will not change if we invest in

_{}project and thus, it is sunk.

_{}concept of sunk costs and relevant costs applies to all types of financing decisions.

So far, we have covered present values and relevancy within capital budgeting. We now can proceed to calculate

_{}present value of cash flows, we will have a basis for comparing our initial investment. Both values (future cash flows and initial investment) will be expressed in current values.

_{}net of these two amounts will tell us how much value we will create or destroy by investing in a project.

We will receive $ 5,788 of cash flow each year by investing in this new assembly machine. Since we have a salvage value, we have a terminal cash flow associated with this project.

### Calculating the Present Value of Cash Flows

Our next step is to calculate present values of our two cash flow streams. We will use our cost of capital to discount_{}cash flows. We will assume that our cost of capital is 12%. We will use

_{}appropriate discount factor per

_{}12% cost of capital.

### Calculating Net Investment

Now that we have_{}total cash outlay we must make today and it includes:

- All cash paid out to invest in
project and place it into service, such as installation, transportation, etc.the - Net proceeds from
_{}disposal of any old equipment that will be replaced by new equipment.the - Any taxes paid and/or tax benefits received from making
_{}investment.

So we now have a current value for our cash flows of $ 22,709 and a total net investment of $ 24,100. These amounts are derived by looking at three different types of cash flows:

1. Relevant cash flows during

_{}project.

2. Terminal cash flows at

3. Initial cash flows (net investment).

## 2 comments:

Thanks for information as a manager i know how informations are helpful thanks again.

Professional Management Education

This is a nice budgeting analysis information.Iam seeking this type of information thanks for enhance my knowledge.

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